Guitar is a traditional musical instrument from Spain. But there are also those who say that the history of the guitar began long before Christ, namely in the Babylonian era. Initially this instrument was small and had four strings, each paired.
during the Renaissance, guitar instruments were unpopular and not even in the public interest. But after Alonso Mudarra began introducing this instrument through his works, soon people began to be interested in listening to and playing guitar. And at that time the guitar began to be popular among the people.
In the 17th century or the Baroque period guitar strings were added to five each in pairs, allowing players to play more complex and extensive music.
The classical period around 1750-1775 gave birth to many famous guitar composers including Fernando Sor, Mauro Giuliani, Matteo Carcassi, D. Aguado and Fernando Carulli. They write music and often hold guitar concerts in various places. At that time the guitar musical instrument was very popular and attracted many people.
In addition there is also Nicolo Paganini who is also a well-known violinist and guitar player whose works are still often heard until now.
In the late 19th century the guitar instruments declined and many people did not know this instrument, but were later re-popularized by Francisco Tarrega who was a great composer of classical guitar. Many of his musical works have become very well known, including: Recuerdos de la Alhambra, Estudio Brillante, Capricho Arabe and many more.
He also wrote and compiled a method / system for teaching guitar and his teaching method became the standard of teaching in classical guitar lessons until now. He also taught a lot and not a few of his students became great composers such as himself, including Miguel Liobet.
In addition to guitar composers, there is also a guitar designer who contributed to the development of this instrument, namely Luthier Antonio Torres. He tried to increase the size of the guitar and try to increase the sound of the guitar to make it harder and more harmonious.
He perfected the guitar shape a lot, he made the guitar neck wider and thinner than the previous guitar shape. He also made a standard guitar string with a length of 65 cm which until now is still in use. From the results of this experiment, the guitar he made is a standard for modern guitars that are used today. Besides Torres, there was also a person named Stradivarius who, besides being famous, made the violin also good at making guitars.
In 1946 strings / strings of guitars previously made of Gut (ropes made from animal intestines) were replaced with strings made of nylon (nylon strings). By using nylon strings, the sound produced is bigger and better.
Guitar musical instruments continue to grow until now and have become world instruments. The number of players, instructors, composers, and guitar makers today is very large, schools and guitar courses are also easily found in every place even now there are also magazines that specifically discuss guitar. Because the development of science and technology is so rapid, guitar instruments have also been affected and now we have known the name Electric Guitar.
History of Electric Guitars
The history of the electric guitar began in 1930, when a man named George Beauchamp began looking for ways to increase the volume of the guitar. It is known that if a wire is given a magnetic field force it can create an electric current. On this basis, he researched and conducted an experiment with Gramopone needles (basically this technology can be found in electric motors, generators, gramophone needles, radios and mics). He believes that if the guitar strings are vibrated near the magnetic field it can be converted into electric currents and then converted back into sound waves through the speaker.
After months of experimentation and working with Paul Barth, a simple first pickup consisting of 6 poles and each pole was created for each string. The pickup contains neatly rolled coils. According to the story, he took the coil from the washing machine and wrapped it around with a sewing machine motor. His discovery was highly valued and obtained patent rights. With this discovery, the next step he was looking for people who would work together and help him in the matter of funds. He contacted his friend Adolph Rickenbacher at the National String Instrument Company where he worked. They worked together and formed a company called Instrumens Rickenbachers. Finally they began producing the first electric guitar called "The Frying Pan" (maybe because the guitar body was made of pan). This is what made their company written in history as the first factory to make and produce electric guitars.
Then someone named Lloyd Loar introduced an electric guitar whose model was in the form of a Spanish guitar. He is considered the first time to make and market this model guitar. He has carried out many of these experiments from the beginning of 1920 and in 1933 founded a company called Vivi-Tone which is a subsidiary of Gibson Company.
The company produces electric guitars in the form of Spanish guitars but in one year the company was unsuccessful. From this failure, finally inspired the Gibson Company to try to continue creating an electric guitar. From the efforts made, the ES-150 electric guitar was created which later became the pioneer of the next electric guitars.
The history of electric guitars continued in 1933 when Alvino Rey, who also worked for Gibson Company developed an electric guitar pickup that was better than the sound quality the shape was also changed.
Behind the success of the ES-150 is still found many shortcomings, because the guitar body is hollow, the vibration from the guitar body is also captured by pickups so that it can be heard on the amplifier. Besides that, feedback and voices are often unwanted. Because of that a famous jazz guitarist Les Paul introduced a new solution to make the guitar body solid and not hollow.
In the end he succeeded in making a solid body guitar and producing good sound without unwanted feedback or noises. In addition, he added a pickup on his guitar body in two. In 1946 he took his guitar to Gibson but was rejected on the grounds that consumers were less interested in solid body guitars. He felt disappointed because the effort he initiated finally failed.
Shortly thereafter a person named Leo Fender believed that the guitar made by Les Paul with his solid body guitar would be in great demand by consumers. Finally in 1943 he made a solid body guitar made of Oak wood and rented it to musicians to get a lot of support. Finally in 1949 Leo Fender got his success with his solid body guitar model and got an award.
Seeing Leo Fender's success with his solid body guitar, the Gibson Company finally returned to see the example of Les Paul's guitar and redesigned it. In 1952 it was decided to produce solid body guitars and become an industry standard. Although his inspiration came from Les Paul the Gibson guitar we now know is named after his company.
In 1961 Ted McCarty introduced ES-335 a semi-hollow guitar, a combination of hollow guitar and solid body guitar. Quickly this guitar became popular to be used by jazz guitarists including BB King and Chuck Berry.
Gibson and Fender are guitar makers that have contributed to developing these instruments, especially electric guitars with futuristic designs. Both of them have become standard guitars for musicians, as now we know Gibson SG or Fender Stratocaster. After the two companies have succeeded in developing electric guitars, other companies have started to produce electric guitars until now.
Drum History in the World – Drums are musical instruments using sticks. There are various types of drums, including drum fractions that sound distinctively when rubbed, drum frames that are in the form of a drum or more often called a tambourine, two-sided drum drum or drum with seeds hanging on the left and right sides. This one o'clock instrument is quite interesting. Because if you hit it with a stick, the drum can make a thunderous and attractive sound that will increase the enthusiasm of anyone who is on a musical performance. Not to mention, the band players who took the stage. They are able to bring the atmosphere to be more cheerful and more alive. The following is the beginning of the history of drums up to the world famous.
Early Age of Civilization
Humans of early civilization used to beat objects around them to express joy when they managed to catch game animals. Over time, they understood the source of sound like the drum. They make it from a hollow wooden stick that is covered with reptile or fish skin and played by tapping.
Over time, this simple musical instrument has become the most important part of accompanying large meal parties and dance entertainment that they created themselves.
In Ancient Egyptian civilization around 4000 BC, found wooden drums made of animal skin. Play it by striking a wooden stick that is more or less the same shape as a drumstick now. This instrument was found with typical Ancient Egyptian artifacts. Then, giant drum skeletons were found among ancient Sumerians and Mesopotamians. It is estimated that the drum was made around 3000 years ago.
Africa and Greece
In Africa and Greece, also found historical evidence in the form of drums which were estimated to be made in 2000 BC. The skeleton of the drum is more or less the same as that found in Egypt. In that same year, there was a drum that resembled an hourglass on the oldest Indian temple relief named Bharhut. At the same time, the Romans used a drum found in his country as a drummer blazing the spirit of war troops. This is the first time this has happened in the world.
Several other countries
In Persia, around 600 AD, a short drum from clay was made. Then, the drum is made of metal and wood. Furthermore, it spread to Africa, Europe, and Asia, as a war accompaniment music. European society in the 13th century recognized timpani, a musical instrument made of copper and a kettle-shaped soup. Timpani is sometimes called kettle drum.
Two centuries after that, kettle drum was used in England in the field of army as a marker of time, cue attacks, and weapons that made the enemy frightened.
European explorations in 1500 to America as well as introducing drums. The influence of drums was extraordinary for the military until 1800 several countries began to study drums in troops. The drum band was triggered by Russian military forces while playing a music parade using drums in 1813.
In the revival era of music in America in 1935, the drum appeared not in a single form. Various types of drums were introduced, such as string drums, tenor drums, bass drums, and cymbals. It was only in the era of the 70s that electric drums appeared which sounded more or less the same as timpani, drums, and acoustic drums.
This keyboard is typical of the West. The keyboard instrument gets its sound from the manipulation of keys, some are pressed, some are stepped on. The keyboard arrangement follows logic from the left low notes to the right high notes. The left-right arrangement for the bass to the treble applies to all types of keyboards which generally are piano, organ, harpsiscord and clavichord.
The musicians themselves prefer to group them in the way they produce sound. There is a chordophone where strings are knocked to vibrate and make a sound. This is included in the piano group. Then the aerophone where the tubes are passed through the air whose vibrations produce sound. Inside is a group of organs. Finally, an electrophone where electric waves are vibrated to produce sound. Electric piano instruments, electrical organs are examples.
This last group developed very rapidly at the end of the 20th century. This electrophone instrument can now produce all the sound quality of his elder brother. From the piano to the organs can be produced by electronic keyboards called synthesizers.
This keyboard instrument has been around since ancient times. It is not clear which is right at first. In the Western scales called diatonic, tonal is divided into 12 tones. There is a full tone and a semi-tone tone. In keyboard instruments these two groups of tones are usually distinguished by bright colored keys and for semi-tones. The chromatic key sequence arrangement (including 12 tones) appeared in Europe in the 14th century.
At the beginning of the appearance of the blades still in a very wide size. One blade can be several centimeters wide so that not many harmonies can be produced. It was only in the 16th century, 200 years, that the width of the blades appeared. One octave of 12 blades made a total of 16.5 centimeters wide. This means diatonic tones can be covered in one hand width until harmonic music can be produced. In this development white and black key innovations were also created.
In the 15th century a stringed musical instrument was created by sounding through a passage, a harpsichord appeared. The Harpsichord continued to develop in the 17th and 18th centuries. A technique sounds the string again developed with a small oscillator that works. As a result the punch on the key blade can be done slowly and hard. Slow in Italian is piano and hard is forte. The instrument of new innovation was very popular because the volume of the tone could be arranged with a hard weakness manipulating the key board. The name of the tool became pianoforte. Over time it is summarized into a piano.
This keyboard instrument allows the development of western music with a spectrum of harmony that can be said to be unmatched by the flow of other music on this earth. The composition of the symphony orchestra comes from the piano's ability to produce harmonic tones.
Electronic keyboards only emerged in the 20th century. It was first marketed by Laurens Hammond in the United States in 1935. Since then the instrument has begun to develop which is now the king of musical instruments. The sound of the symphony orchestra also with dozens of instruments can be produced by just one keyboard.
The emergence of silicon transistors at low prices and top quality made it easier for engineers to develop sound-producing musical instruments. A compact device and can produce conventional sounds such as acoustic sounds as produced by strings, drums, or wind instruments, or unusual sounds such as atonal sounds such as creaking between metals. In 1962 an Italian engineer Paolo Ketoff issued an instrument called Synket. This tool produces experimental music which for lay listeners is not musical.
Two years later in America a musical instrument was created by Donald Buchla and one by Robert Moog. The Donald Buchla tool does not use keyboard as a play device but with a touch-sensitive surface. Robert Moog made a tool that uses keyboards as a processing device. At the side, a conventional controller is installed such as a rotary button to harden and play the sound, as well as to adjust the high and low tones produced. Robert Moog's creation made it easier to use to play traditional music in a new sound order. Johan Sebastian Bach's works can be played with Mini Moog, once the tool is called.
At that time this tool cannot play harmonic tones. Only one on one tone can be played, so that this instrument is popular as a bearer of melodies in pop music. Rock music was among the first to adopt this tool in the progressive genre of rock in bands such as Yes, Genesis, Emerson Lake and Palmer.
It was only in 1980 that synthesizers could emit harmonic sounds. The first well-known equipment was the Yamaha DX-7 which came out in 1983. This equipment uses the development of synthesizers from the Robert Moog era with Frequent Modulation Synthesis designed by John Chowning from Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. FM produces a variation of timbre by changing the frequency of a wave with proportional other wave amplitude. Yamaha DX-7 has a five octave keyboard. More than 100,000 of these devices are sold by Yamaha.
Then in the following year Casio issued CZ-101 which uses batteries for energy. Has four voices and follows the capabilities of analog synthesizers. The selling price of CZ-101 is only a quarter of the price of Yamaha DX-7 so that the popularity of electronic keyboards has increased greatly.
Sounds can be recorded. The results of this recording are in the form of tone waves which are translated as digital data. This digital data can be processed and re-sounded with musical control. This is called sampling instrument. This sampling has become a common part in electronic keyboard instruments.
The first sampling was issued in 1970 by the Fairlight Computer Musical Instrument (CMI) in Sydney, Australia. Fairlight CMI is a general computer device with an additional device that can record and convert it into digital data (digitize), then save and play back on the keyboard instrument.
This save and replay ability was developed by Raymond Kurzweil in 1984 through a device called Kurzweil 250.
In the keyboard there are digital codes from the sound of the grand piano, stringed instruments, and many more timbre orchestral instruments. This tool besides being intended for the use of performances is also intended to make compositions. The keyboard that developed with the ability of the polyphonic synthesizer and sampling was called a musical workstation.
In 1983 several musical instrument manufacturers agreed to procedures for combining various musical instruments to work in a computer device.
The result is Musical Instrument Digital Interface or MIDI. MIDI is a way to order what tones are played in what timbre, what nuances, and so on. With computer devices and programs that are suitable, it can be done like what can be done on a sophisticated musical workstation.
Nowadays the world of music shows always includes compact electronic keyboard instruments like this.
In the 1920s, Lloyd Loar, who worked for Gibson, designed the first electric double bass. This bass uses electro-static pickup, but amply for bass frequencies has not been developed. So at that time there was no way to listen to the double bass instrument.
At the beginning of the 1930s, Paul Tutmarc became the first person to improve the double bass size to be more practical. The first size was made only for the cello, and using rudimentary pickups, but the results were excessive weight, and eventually improved the shape to resemble a guitar.
This newly created bass has a length of 42 ″, solid body, uses black walnut and piano strings that are still equipped with pickups.
And in the mid 30's, several music instrument developers – Lyon & Healy, Gibson and Rickenbacker, – began marketing the same experimental electric bass as the basss Tutmarc prototype, which was slightly larger than the standard double bass. However, the bass is still high, no, has a fret, and plays vertically or stands up.
Around 1940, Paul Tutmarc jr started producing guitars and basses, including the Serenader bass. This production is distributed by L.D. Heater Music Co., in portland, Oregon, and became the largest distributor of electric bass. The Genius named it the bass guitar – the instrument that had the fret and played horizontally. The main features of these products are:
* Pickup – designed because double bass is often covered with brass sections from a jazz band.
* size – double bass players must be able to travel on their own, because of their large size, often missing out on every trip. With the new design, the bass player can travel and rest with his band.
There was a slight change in progress until Leo Fender created precision bass in 1951. Named Precision Bass because the fret on the bass followed a note that was played precisely. Electric bass produced by Leo Fender, many produce this form. In 1957, the pickup was changed to a split pickup, and the pickup and headstock were redesigned.
1960 Fender designed and created Jazz bass, with 2 pickups of the same size. The popularity of Fender's bass was then followed by Gibson, Rickenbacker, and Hohner. This is what has increasingly made the popularity of the electric bass expand until now.
In 1959, Danelectro created the first 6 string bass, with tuning E A D G B E, and Gibson and Fender used this idea to make the Gibson EB-6 in 1960, and Fender VI in 1962. Fender also made the first 5 string bass called Fender V.
In 1965, fretless Aubi bass from Ampeg was created and in 1968 8 bass strings were introduced by Hagstroem. Freetless 6 string bass (which was finally owned by Les Claypool) was made by Carl Thompson in 1978. Because of the style of play such as slap and pop, the number of strings and combinations of wood, neck and other pickups increasingly varied. EMG pickup which is the widest pickup used on the bass.
The first electric bass was popularized by John Entwistle and James Jamerson in the 60s, Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke in the 70s and Marcus Miller and Cliff Burton in the 80s. In the late 80s there was a difference in the popularity of bass, as a fashion used for electornic synthesised dance music. However the bass you have now is a far-reaching development of double bass.
Now, it is Claypool (Primus) and Flea (RHCP) which shows how important bass is in modern music. How, you know the origin of this instrument?
Electric bass guitar (commonly called electric bass or bass only) is a musical instrument that uses electricity to enlarge its sound. Its appearance is similar to an electric guitar but it has a larger body, a longer neck, and usually has four strings (electric guitars have six strings).
Addition: the weight of the bass itself is ideally heavier than ordinary electric guitars, this is because the strings are thicker (to maintain a low tone / sound) so that it has to choose denser and harder wood to balance the strings on the "neck" (guitar neck.
other than that the size of the fret (column on the guitar) is larger which is adjusted to the thickness of the string. There are many types of bass that are used until now. The most widely used are contra bass and ciello bass (commonly used for opera performances), electric bass (commonly used for all types of performances, especially bands) and "fretless" bass which is the same as electric bass but no fret (column / border on press board / neck) on the bass. The working principle of fretless bass is similar to contra / ciello bass but only in the form of an electric guitar.